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Human anatomy

Superficial anatomy of female and male human

Human anatomy is a complementary basic medical science is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, physiology (the study of function) and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences which are usually taught together (or in tandem).

In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology [1], through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos.

The human body can be divided into organ systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue.

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over a long period of time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.

A full articulated human skeleton

Generally, physicians, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, radiographers, artists, and students of certain biological sciences, learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical and dental students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies). A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology.

Human anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically [1]; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format [2],[3], in line with modern teaching methods.

Regional groups

Major organ systems

Superficial anatomy

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in human anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily identified from the contours or other reference points on the surface of the body [1]. With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians gauge the position and anatomy of the associated deeper structures.

Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:

Internal organs

Common names of internal organs (in alphabetical order) :

See also

References

External links

The content of this section is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License (local copy). It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Human anatomy" modified November 23, 2008 with previous authors listed in its history.

Sex organs
Penis
Clitoris
Vulva
Breast
Human body
Uterus
Pelvis
Liver
Human abdomen
Digestive system
Gallbladder
Pancreas
Organs
Vermiform appendix
Heart
Musculoskeletal system
Head
Circulatory system
Embryology
Hand
Thorax
Shoulder
Perineum
Thyroid
Arm
Knee
Thoracic diaphragm
Anus
Hip
Pelvic inlet
Thigh
Ankle
Blood vessels
Urinary bladder
Salivary glands
Rectum
Lymphatic system
Tissues
Adrenal glands
Skin
Spleen